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Class 10 Computer Applications (165)

Computer Application class 10 Syllabus

Answers of Computer Application class 10 Kips Book (165)



1. The components of a URL are:
i. The Scheme: This is the first part of a web address, also known as the protocol identifier. It tells the Internet browser which protocol needs to be followed to access the address. 
ii. The Host: The second part of the web address identifies the host. The host starts typically with “www”, which
indicates the World Wide Web. This tells the browser where the resource, i.e., the site is located on the Internet.
iii. The Domain: A domain name follows the host. It is the unique name given to each website. The domain name
consists of two parts – one is the name of the domain, and the other is the web (or domain) extension.
iv. The Path: This is the last part of the URL. The path tells the browser regarding the file to be used from the
domain directory.
Example URL:
Here in this example, http is the scheme, www is the host, prsindia is the domain, and /aboutus/background/ is the
2. Dynamic content refers to web content that is generated based on the viewer’s request and preferences. The
content will change if another user views it at the same time, or the same user views the web page at a different
time. It is appropriate for displaying user-specific information, e.g., shopping cart, or live information like news and
weather updates.
3. The web portal and website can be differentiated on the basis of the following points:
Definition A web portal is a gateway to a wide range of Internet services.
A website is a collection of related web pages containing images, videos, or other digital media set under the same domain name.
Authentication It requires authentication measures like login and provides information accordingly.

No authentication is required. Anyone can see the content.

Personalisation It provides focussed and personalised
A website provides extensive content to fulfil
the needs of a wide range of users. A user can
access and use the provided information as
per his desire.
Customisation A user can select and organise the
content he wants to access.
The content is searchable, but not
Linkage It is generally linked to various
websites that provide the relevant web
It is generally linked to its own web pages.
Examples University or Company website, search

4. A Newsgroup is an online discussion forum where remotely connected users share and discuss a particular topic. The
users/subscribers can exchange text messages, images, videos, and other digital media. People from different
locations post articles here which all the other subscribers of the newsgroup can read and respond to. The collection
of these messages and responses on one topic or question form a thread, which is displayed in chronological order
by date of posting. The newsreader software is used to read and post these messages. The newsreader is a program
that runs on your computer and connects you to a news server on the Internet.


5. Markup languages are designed to create an appropriate markup scheme for an electronic document or web page.
The language specifies the code for formatting, both the layout and style, within a text file. HTML is an example of markup language.

6. Structural components of a web page are:
i. Title bar displays the title of the current web page.
ii. Menu or Navigational Links are the hyperlinks used to move between linked pages of the website.
iii. Header Area contains the company and logo, relevant text, & search box.
iv. Content Area contains the main content of the web page.
v. Footer Area contains copyright notices, website contact information, and privacy statements.


7. There are specific rules, which determine how the data should be transferred over the networks, compressed,
presented on the screen, and so on. These sets of rules are called Protocols.


8. TCP/IP stands for Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol. It is a family of protocols defining conventions for
communication between computers over the Internet. It is the basic communication protocol of the Internet. TCP/IP
is a two-layer program. The higher layer, TCP, manages the breaking down and assembling of the data, whereas the
lower layer, IP, is responsible for the accurate delivery of the data over the Internet.


9. There are various types of blogs available on the web.
i. Personal blog: This is the most common and popular type of blog. It is a journal or diary that is on the Internet.
Personal blog encompasses personal views on any chosen subject like health, politics, travel, etc.
ii. Company blog: This category is used by professionals or companies to let their customers or clients know about
their upcoming products and the progress being made on some projects.
iii. Non-profit blog: This category incorporates the non-profit organisations which use blogging to create awareness
and raise money for their cause.


10. Two popular web browsers are Google Chrome and Mozilla Firefox.

11. The WWW (World Wide Web) commonly known as the Web, is a way of accessing information over the Internet. It
contains millions of documents called Web Pages. Sir Tim Berners Lee, along with Robert Cailliau, invented the
World Wide Web while working at CERN (European Council for Nuclear Research) in 1990.

a. Network organisations – .net
b. Government agencies – .gov

13. Internet is called “Network of networks” because it is a network of millions of computers connected worldwide
through telephone lines or cables.


a. ISP: Internet Service Provider
b. URL: Uniform Resource Locator


15. Hypertext is a system in which different types of documents/files, such as images, sound effects, and text are linked
to each other. The Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) is responsible for accessing hypertext documents on the
world wide web.


16. E-mail address is a unique electronic address where e-mails are received. You need an e-mail address to receive an
e-mail. It consists of two parts – a Username and a Domain Name, separated by the @ (‘at’) symbol.

On the other hand, the Uniform Resource Locator denotes the global address of the documents and other resources
on the World Wide Web. The communication between a web user and an Internet resource is possible by identifying
each resource on the Internet in a standardised manner.


1. A web page is a document commonly written in HTML (Hypertext Markup Language) that is hosted on the Internet,
whereas, a website is a collection of publicly accessible interlinked web pages, containing related information, located
under a single domain name.
i. Scheme
ii. Domain
iii. Extension
3. Meghna wants to access Internet. She opens the browser and then types the web address of the website which
consists of multiple web pages.


1. The main advantage of e-shopping is to buy products and services over the Internet. People enjoy the convenience
of having their order shipped right to their doorstep.
2. Two popular search engines are: and
i. Social Networking Site –
ii. – Video Conferencing
iii. e-Shopping –
iv. – e-Banking
4. The minus sign is used to remove certain words or phrases from the query result while searching using a search
engine. For example, “What is good and –bad” will produce results, excluding the word “bad”.
5. An e-mail address usually consists of two parts – username and domain name, separated by the @ (pronounced as
‘at’) symbol.
For example,
Here, kipspublishingworld is the username and gmail is the domain name.
6. Even if you do not own a computer, you can still send and receive e-mails using your own account by using other
devices such as mobile phones or tablets. This can be possible by using web-based e-mail. It can be accessed by the
users across the globe from any device connected to the Internet, at any time. For using web-based e-mail, one
needs to first register with an e-mail service provider in order to get a free account and create a login with a
username and password.
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7. When you cannot meet in person, video conferencing is the best option to have face-to-face interaction in real time.
It has become easier to conduct corporate meetings between the branches of a company that are situated far away.
People can work together and share their ideas. It is a more economical means of communication as companies can
save on travel and hotel costs. The meetings can be organised on short notice as people can easily participate from
distant locations.
8. FTP or File Transfer Protocol is a standard Internet Protocol for exchanging files between two or more computers on
the Internet over TCP/IP protocols. FTP uses TCP/IP protocols to upload or download files to our computers from
other sources. The source can be a web server or a remote host over the Internet. FTP transfer involves two
computers- one acts as a server and the other as a client.
9. To upload any file or folder on the FTP server, you can copy a file or a folder from your computer and paste it to any
folder in the FTP server.On the other hand, to download a file or a folder, copy it from the FTP server’s folder and
paste it into your computer’s folder. Once completed, simply close the FTP server’s window.
10. Double quotes are used to get exact results in a search engine query. For example, if you are searching for bestselling books in India, enclose the full sentence into double quotes. For example, “Bestselling books in India”. If you
do not enclose the query in double quotes, Google will produce a search result based on individual words from the
a. Military – .mil
b. Government – .gov
12. Video conferencing can be helpful to both students and teachers because the students present at different locations
can attend lectures and training through video conferencing.
1. The software-based services, which are offered by an electronic device to another device communicating with each
other via World Wide Web, are called web services. Some of the various web services are discussed below:
i. Chat: It is an online conversation, where you are typing rather than talking. Chatting on the Internet can take
place via websites in areas known as chat rooms.
ii. Video Conferencing: It can be considered as a phone call with pictures that allows multiple people, sitting at
geographically different locations, to communicate with each other by exchanging video and audio at the same
time. It involves the use of a camera known as a Webcam and a microphone at the end of each participant to
capture video and audio data in real time.
iii. E-Learning: It means “Electronic Learning”. It refers to a wide range of applications and processes, designed to
provide guidance and/or deliver information to students, faculties, or employees of the companies through
electronic means.
iv. E-banking: It is the way of performing bank transactions using the Internet.
v. E-shopping: E-shopping refers to buying products and services over the Internet.
vi. E-reservation: It means making a reservation or appointment for a service via the Internet.
vii. E-governance stands for Electronic Governance. It refers to the integration of Information and Communication
Technology (ICT) in government processes, services, and communications.
viii. E-group: It is a virtual meeting place for individuals who share the common interests.
ix. Social Networking Site: It is an online platform that focuses on facilitating the building of social networks or
social relations among people who, for example, share interests, activities, backgrounds, or real-life connections.
x. Mobile technology: It is a technology which is mainly used for communication in mobile devices.
2. Mobile technology is a technology which is mainly used for communication in mobile devices.
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3G is the third generation of wireless mobile technology which made web browsing an enjoyable experience on
mobile devices. The first 3G network was introduced in 1998. 3G is an upgrade of 2G and 2.5G networks, with faster
Internet speed. Each generation brought new frequency bands and higher data transmission rates. This made the
streaming of audio and video files possible without any interruption. It provides a data transmission rate up to 2
4G refers to the fourth generation of wireless communications which is a successor to 2G and 3G family of
standards. It is an IP based packet-switching integrated system with a high-speed data transmission rate of 100
Mbps to 1 Gbps. Nowadays, 4G technology is widely used with other communication technologies like Broadcast
and Satellite communication. It provides expanded multimedia services at anytime and anywhere as per a user’s
requirement with high security and high speed.

3. Some features of e-governance are:
i. E-governance stands for Electronic Governance.
ii. It refers to the integration of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in government processes,
services, and communications.
iii. It helps the government to improve the efficiency of service delivery and the exchange of information, thus
strengthening democracy.
iv. Some advantages of e-governance are, expanded reach of government, increased convenience, high
transparency, reduced corruption, direct participation of constituents, and reduction in overall cost.
v. Some disadvantages are — non-availability of Internet services in many rural and remote areas, and despite
providing a high level of security, the government portals are still vulnerable to cyber attacks, stealing, and
misuse of data by hackers.
4. Advantages of E-Shopping:
Convenience: With online shopping, a person just needs to log on to the Internet, access the online shopping
website, and choose the desired item. The selected item is then kept in a virtual shopping cart until the customer is
ready to make the final purchase.
Information and Reviews: An online store provides reviews on the products. A customer gets additional information,
like instructions on products usage, manufacturer specifications, and safety procedures, etc., that help in guiding
them about the product.
Price and Selection: Another interesting feature is the cheap deals and better prices we get from the online stores
because products reach us directly from the manufacturer or seller without any middlemen involved. They also offer
discount coupons and rebates.
Compulsive Shopping: Most of the time when we go for shopping, we end up buying things which we do not require.
However, there is no such pressure strategy in e-shopping and you are free to buy products of your choice at your
own will. 
Some disadvantages of E-shopping are:
i. Online shopping does not provide the personal touch of shopping.
ii. An important issue is online security as making payments online is not completely safe.
iii. Only a few sites offer free shipping of products. Hence, the shipping cost acts as a big discouragement for online
iv. A major problem in e-shopping is the hassle in returning the product and follow up on the refund, or the
exchange of items.
v. There is a huge risk of online fraud. Some sites pretend to be selling products at a meagre price, and the
customers often receive a low quality or refurbished item for that price.
vi. Sometimes, the sites shut down unexpectedly after taking the payment for items. As a result, the customers do
not receive anything in return for the price paid.
5. Requirements to connect to FTP server:
Before connecting to an FTP server, you need to install FTP client software on your computer. You can also connect
to an online FTP server using its web address, username, and password. Many FTP servers require you to sign in, but
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some FTP servers allow you to access the server as a guest. So, you need not be a registered user of these FTP
6. A few disadvantages of video conferencing are:
i. A very reliable and fast connection is needed all the time to conduct video conferencing.
ii. Even with a fast connection, there might be a slight delay between responses that can disrupt the natural flow
of conversation.
iii. The major disadvantage is the technical difficulty associated with it, that is software, hardware, or network
failure. It may disrupt the flow of the meeting.
iv. High quality dedicated video conferencing systems are expensive to buy.
v. People could be in different time zones around the world. The chances are that some people may have to stay
back during odd hours in the night to attend the meeting.
7. In a client-server architecture, SSH protocol, also known as Secure Socket Shell Protocol, is predominantly used for
securing data over an unsecured network. It establishes a secure connection between the client and the host
computer through remote command execution for transferring data over a network. It transfers files over a network
by using the services of other associated security protocols like SFTP and SCP.
8. PC banking is a type of banking where a person uses a personal computer to access banking information. It requires
a secure Internet connection and a Personal Financial Management software, such as Quicken®, Microsoft Money®,
etc. With PC banking, you can safely perform your bank transactions like bill payments, fund transfers, check
statements, etc. from your home computer.
i. – valid
ii. tanmay(45) – invalid (Brackets not allowed)
iii. – invalid (name of a website)
iv. – invalid (@ symbol is not allowed)
v. – valid
2. i. Diya is interested in Social Networking Sites.
ii. She can join Facebook, Twitter, or LinkedIn.
iii. Some merits of Social networking sites are:
Easier to connect, create new connections, free business promotions, aids in criminal cases, spreads information
incredibly fast.
Some demerits are:
Cyber bullying, less real life interaction, addiction, misleading information, misuse of information, fake profiles, peer
pressure, etc.
3. Akhil would be using TELNET protocol for remotely accessing computers.
4. Video Conferencing can be used to organise a virtual lecture.
i. – E-mail id
ii. – Domain name
iii. – URL
iv. – URL
v. – Domain address
vi. – URL


1. The <BODY> tag contains the content of your document which gets displayed on the web page of your browser
The content of the web page comes here.
2. Hyperlinks are the highlighted text segments or images that connect to other pages on the web.
3. The elements that include both ON tag and OFF tag are called Container elements. The OFF tag has the same name
as that of an ON tag. The only difference between the ON tag and the OFF tag is that the OFF tag starts with a ‘/’
symbol. For example, <B> tag and <U> tag.
Empty elements only contain ON tags. They do not have OFF tags. These elements do not enclose any data; instead,
they do some function on their own.
For example, <BR> tag and <IMG> tag.
4. The Type attribute allows you to change the style of numbers in an ordered list.
5. An attribute is a property that provides additional information about an HTML element. It enhances the functionality
of a tag and is always specified inside the opening tag.
6. <H1> heading element gives the most prominent heading.
7. i. <FONT> – Attributes are — size, color
ii. <BODY> – Attributes are — bgcolor, background
i. HR – Tag ii. Align – Attribute
iii. BR – Tag iv. Text – Attribute
v. P – Tag vi. Noshade – Attribute
9. <HTML>
<OL Type = “A” Start = 3>
10. <HTML>
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<TITLE>My Software List</TITLE>
<LI>MS Word
<LI>MS Excel
<LI>MS PowerPoint
<LI>MS Access
Code Error Corrected Code
<UL Style : Square > Type attribute should be used
instead of Style
<UL Type=Square>
<LI> Water Bottles No error –
<LI> Lunch Box No error –
<LI> Handkerchief No error –
</OL> </UL> tag should be used </UL>
12. <OL Type = “a” Start = “d”>
Error: A numeric value is given with the Start attribute.
Correction: <OL Type = “a” Start = 4>
1. A web browser is a software which is used to view websites. It is an interface between a user and the World Wide
Web. A web browser can have a graphical user interface like Internet Explorer, Mozilla Firefox, Google Chrome,
Opera, or can be text-based, i.e., Lynx.
2. Block level elements take up the full width available and by default, begin on a new line. These elements include
tags like, Paragraph, Heading, etc.
On the other hand, text level elements are used to markup the bits of text, including changing the text appearance
or creating hyperlinks. They do not start on a new line and only take up as much width as necessary. These elements
include tags like, Bold, Italics, Line break, etc.
3. The <B> tag is used to display the text as bold. When you want to emphasise the text, type the text within <B> and
</B> tags.
On the other hand, the <BR> tag breaks a line and displays the proceeding text in the next line without giving any
space between the two lines. It should be given at the end of that line after which a new line
is required.
4. To display <, >, and & symbols on a web page, character entities are used.
To display “<” sign, &LT is used.
To display “>” sign, &GT is used.
To display the “&” sign, &AMP is used.
5. The unordered list is used when the items are not to be displayed in any particular order. The list can be defined
within the <UL> and </UL> tags. The <UL> tag indents each item in the list and adds a bullet against each of them.
That is why the unordered list is also known as the Bulleted list.
For example, a list of stationery items is given below:
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 Pen
 Eraser
 Pencil
The Ordered list is used to display the list of items in a specific order. It indents and gives a number to each item in
the list, that is why it is also known as the Numbered list. The list begins and ends with <OL> and </OL> tags
For example, in a recipe, if the steps are not demonstrated orderly, the result would not be as desired.
6. A list created within a list is called a Nested list. Ordered and Unordered list can be nested within each other to form
a multilevel list.
7. Definition lists are used to outline the multiple terms and their descriptions one after another, as in a glossary and
other name or value lists. It starts and ends with <DL> and </DL> tag respectively. The <DL> tag is used in
conjunction with <DT> (Definition Term) and <DD> (Definition Description) tags where:
<DT> helps in defining the terms or names.
<DD> helps in describing each term or name.
8. <UL> tag is used to create an unordered list. The items in an Ordered and Unordered list can be added by using the
<LI> tag. By default, the list items are preceded with a solid circle, which can be changed using the Type attribute.
Using the closing tag in <LI> is optional.
1. Notepad or WordPad
b. <H1> “PETER PAN” </H1>
c. <H1>”A MUSICAL” </H1>
d. <HR>
Code Error Corrected Code
<UL STYLE : square > Type attribute should be used
instead of Style
<UL Type=Square>
<LI> Water Bottles No error –
<LI> Lunch Box No error –
<LI> Handkerchief No error –
</OL> </UL> tag should be used </UL>
<UL STYLE: square >
<LI> Water Bottles
<LI> Lunch box
<LI> Handkerchief
4. <SUB> and </SUB> tags should be used instead of <SUP> and </SUP>.
6CO<sub>2</sub> + 6H<sub>2</sub>O
C<sub>6</sub>H<sub>12</sub>O<sub>6</sub> + 6O<sub>2</sub>


1. Sometimes a browser does not display images. In that case, you can provide the text that you want to display in
place of the image. The Alt attribute of the <IMG> tag lets you specify text as an alternate to the image.
2. The <TH> tag specifies a column heading in a table. It ends with </TH> tag. It makes the text bold.
On the other hand, the <THEAD> tag is used to group header rows that define the table’s header. This tag should
appear inside the <TABLE> tag. It is useful in case of large tables that span across multiple pages in a document. The
table header defined by the <THEAD> tag will appear on each page of the document where the table is displayed.
There can be only one <THEAD> element in a table which must follow the main Table command.
3. ROWSPAN is used to combine the cells vertically. It merges the number of cells vertically and displays them as a
single cell.
4. The <TR> tag is used to create a row in a Table.
5. The left and right edges of the vertical sides of the Table’s outside border would be visible by setting
6. The <IMG> tag is used to add images in an HTML document. The Src attribute helps in defining the source of an
image. For example, <IMG Src=”globe.jpg>
7. The two attributes of <IMG> tag are:
i. Src – The Src attribute helps in defining the source of an image.
ii. Alt – Sometimes a browser does not display images. In that case, you can provide the text that you want to
display in place of the image. The Alt attribute lets you specify text as an alternate to the image.
8. If the browser is text-based, e.g. Lynx, and cannot display images, the Alt attribute can prove to be helpful. The Alt
attribute can display a phrase instead of the image. It can explain your image to the visually challenged for which the
browser is programmed to read aloud the alternate text instead of displaying the image.
9. Two common graphics file formats that most browsers recognise are GIF and JPEG.
10. The attributes of <A> tag which are used for internal linking in a web page are Href and Name.
(i) <Img> – Src and Alt
(ii)<Table> – Border and Bordercolor
(iii) <A> – Href and Name
12. <THEAD>, <TBODY>, and <TFOOT> tags are used to define the specific sections of a table.
1. You can add space around the top abd bottom of an image using the Vspace attribute of the <IMG> tag.
<IMG Vspace = “Pixels”>
For example, <IMG Vspace = 30>
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2. We can add border around the image by using the Border attribute. It accepts value in terms of pixels.
<TITLE> Adding Borders </TITLE>
<IMG Src= “C:\Users\Pictures\Desktop\html\Camel.jpg” Border= 5> </CENTER>
3. Rowspan attribute of <TABLE> tag is used to combine the cells vertically. It merges the number of cells vertically and
displays them as a single cell.
Example: <TD Rowspan = 3> where 3 is the number of rows that the cells span across.
Colspan attribute of <TABLE> tag is used to combine the cells horizontally. It specifies the number of columns that
the cells span across and shows them as a single cell.
Example: <TD Colspan= 4 > where 4 is the number of columns that the cells span across.
4. Spacing in cells is controlled by Cellspacing attribute of <TABLE> tag. This attribute is used to set the minimum
distance between two adjacent cells. Cellspacing is also measured in pixels.
Example: TABLE Border=3 Bordercolor= “Purple” Bgcolor= “White” Align = “Center” Cellspacing= 10>
5. HTML Code to add an image of a table at the top of a web page:
<HEAD><TITLE>Aligning images</TITLE>
<BODY Bgcolor=”Lightyellow” Text=”Blue”>
<IMG Src=”table.jpg”>
<CENTER><H1><FONT Color = “Red”> TABLE
Tables arrange data in rows and columns and provide an attractive way to represent information. In HTML, tables
allow the users to organise data like text, images, and links etc. in the form of rows and columns.
6. Write the HTML code to:
i. <TD Valign=”Top”> (Aligns the content of a cell to the top)
ii. The process of creating a link to a specific section of another web page has two steps:
Step 1: Creating a named anchor – <A Name=”anchor”>marker</A>
Step 2: Linking to the named anchor – <A Href=”document1.html#named_anchor”>hypertext</A> (To be given in
7. <HTML>
</HEAD> <BODY Bgcolor=”Pink” Leftmargin=75 Topmargin=50>
<H1>You are welcome to mail us. </H1><BR>
<CENTER><A Href=””>ABC</A>
8. Create a table having four header rows with yellow background colour, four table body rows having light orange
colour, and two footer rows having light green colour. Add table contents on your own.
<TITLE> Using Thead, Tbody, and Tfoot </TITLE>
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<THEAD Bgcolor=”yellow”>
<TR><TH>Header row</TH><TH>Header row</TH></TR>
<TR><TH>Header row</TH><TH>Header row</TH></TR>
<TR><TH>Header row</TH><TH>Header row</TH></TR>
<TR><TH>Header row</TH><TH>Header row</TH></TR>
<TBODY Bgcolor=”lightorange”>
<TR><TD>Body row</TD><TD>Body row</TD></TR>
<TR><TD>Body row</TD><TD>Body row</TD></TR>
<TFOOT Bgcolor=”lightgreen”>
<TR><TD> Footer row </TD><TD>Footer row</TD></TR>
<TR><TD> Footer row </TD><TD>Footer row</TD></TR>
1. Raveena should use <CENTER> tag to align the image in the center. She should write the following code:
2. You can give different colours to every cell by specifying different colour names or colour codes, using <TD> or <TH>
3. To set the space between cell borders and cell data, Cellpadding attribute of <TABLE> tag is used.
<TABLE Cellpadding = 5>
To set the distance between two adjacent cells, Cellspacing attribute of <TABLE> tag is used.
<TABLE Cellspacing = 3>
<TITLE>Annual Sports Day</TITLE>
<BODY Bgcolor=”LightPink”>
<TABLE Border=2 bordercolor = “pink”>
<TR Height=20 Align=”Center”>
<TD> 8:00 am – 9:00 am</TD>
<TD>9:00 am – 1:00 pm</TD>
<TD>1:00 pm – 2:00 pm</TD>
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1. <TABLE>, <TR>, <TH>, <TD> tags are used to create the table.
2. Floating images make the text to wrap around the image.
<IMG Align=Right> tag will place the image against the right margin.
<Body Align = “center”> tag is used to set the alignment of the text pointed by letter B.
<Body Align = “left”> tag is used to set the alignment of the text pointed by letter D.
<A href = “Link”> tag is used to create the links.
Given Code Corrected Code
<HTML> No error
<IMG HREF=”abc.jpg”>HERE IS MY IMAGE FILE <A Href = “abc.jpg”> <IMG Src=”image.jpg”> HERE
7. (a) Internal Linking
The <A> tag can be used to open another webpage named ‘second.html’ by clicking on the text “Next”.
<A Href=”second.html”> Next</A>



1. Type, Name, Value, Size, Maxlength are a few attributes used with the <INPUT> tag.
2. The <SELECT> tag is used to define a selection list in a form. It should be placed within the <FORM> tag. The <OPTION> tag is used along with the <SELECT> tag to display a list of options.
3. Type attribute specifies the kind of form control that will be added to the form.
4. <TEXTAREA> tag adds a multi-line text box on the form area.
5. Forms can be divided into three sections namely:
i. Form Header
ii. Input Fields
iii. Action Buttons

6. A password form control is identical to a text box control, except that whatever the user enters into this field does not get displayed. Instead, dots or asterisks are shown on the screen so that no one can see the typed information.
7. A scroll bar will be added to the list to show that there are more elements in the combo box.
8. The Ctrl or Shift keys are used to select more than one element from the list.

1. Method attribute specifies that the form information should be posted to the URL given in the action attribute.
Possible values are GET and POST.
Get: This is the default value. It is used whenever you wish to e-mail the form contents.
Post: You can make use of this value whenever you want to pass the information to the URL specified in the action

2. Two Input elements are:
Text box and Check box
A text box allows a user to enter alphanumeric data that is a combination of characters and numbers. You can add a
text box to the form in the following way:
SYNTAX: <INPUT Type= “Text”>
A checkbox is like a toggle switch which helps the user to select or deselect one or more items. As with other form
controls, you have to type your label next to the checkbox.
Example: <INPUT Type= “Checkbox” Name= “Hobbies” Value= “Reading” Checked>

i. Radio buttons are used when a user has to make a selection of only one option among the several possible
options. For example, while asking about the gender of a user, you need to specify two radio buttons “Male”
and “Female”, which belong to the same group called “Gender”. A user will be able to select either “Male” or
“Female” but not both the options.
On the other hand, a checkbox is like a toggle switch which helps the user to select or deselect one or more
ii. By clicking on the Submit button, the data in all the fields will be sent to a server as a series of name and value
pairs. The “Name” being the name of the form element and the “Value” is input value entered by the user. The
data is sent to the page specified in the Action attribute of the <FORM> tag.
The Reset button is used to clear the contents and set the values of all the form elements to their initial state and
make them active.

4. Application areas of forms:
i. They are used for collecting names, addresses, telephone numbers, e-mail addresses, and other information of
students which is required by the websites to register them for an online course.
ii. They are used for gathering information for the purchase of an item.
iii. They are used for collecting feedback about a website.
iv. Users are required to fill out a form if they want to participate in a chat session or a discussion group.

5. i. Type: This attribute specifies what kind of form control will be added to the form. The default type for an input
element is Text. It defines only one line of text.
ii. Value: It specifies the initial value for the element.
iii. Size: It specifies the width of the input field.

6. Describe the Cols attribute and Rows attribute of the <TEXTAREA> tag.

Rows attribute of the <TEXTAREA> tag defines the height of the textarea, and Cols attribute defines the width of the
text area.
Example: <TEXTAREA Rows= 10 Cols= 60>


1. Rows attribute of the <TEXTAREA> tag defines the height of the textarea, and Cols attribute defines the width of the
text area.
Example: <TEXTAREA Rows= 10 Cols= 60>

2. <HTML>
<P> Pizza Size:</P>
<INPUT Type=”Radio” Name= “Size” Value= “Small”>
Small <BR>
<INPUT Type=”Radio” Name= “Size” Value= “Medium” Checked> Medium<BR>
<INPUT Type=”Radio” Name= “Size” Value= “Large”> Large<BR>
<INPUT Type= “Submit” Value= “Click to order Pizza”>
<INPUT Type= “Reset” Value= “Click to Clear”>

3. <HTML>
<HEAD> <TITLE> Using drop-down list</TITLE></HEAD>
<BODY Bgcolor= “Lightgreen”> <FORM>
<P> Select your right destination: </P>
<SELECT Name= “Cities”>
<OPTION Selected> Chandigarh</OPTION>



1. The different components of DHTML are – HTML, Cascading Style Sheets (CSS), Scripting, and Document Object Model.
HTML: HTML defines the basic structure of a web page by using the essential elements, such as paragraphs, headings, forms, tables, and links.
CSS: CSS is a set of style sheet design principles that determine the visual layout of the content of a web page.

Scripting: This component of DHTML makes a web page dynamic. It provides a way to interpret the user’s actions and accordingly brings changes to a web page.

DOM: The DOM defines the logical structure of a web page. It arranges the web page content in a hierarchical way that allows the HTML elements, style sheets, and scripting languages to interact with each other.


2. In static web pages, the contents of the web page remain stationary. These web pages are loaded on the client’s browser exactly in the same way as they are stored on the web server. A user can only read the information but cannot make any modifications or interact with the data. Static web pages are created by using only HTML.
A Dynamic web page is generated when a user requests for the page. Each time it shows different content based on the user’s interaction. The page that a user views at a time exists only for him and for that very moment. If viewed by someone else at the same time or even by him at a slightly different time, he would get something different.


3. How can we set the margins for an element?
There are margin properties for setting the margin for each side of an element (top, right, bottom, and left).
To set the margin for each side of an element, we can make use of the following properties:
i. Margin-top: To specify the top margin of an element
ii. Margin-right: To specify the right margin of an element
iii. Margin-bottom: To specify the bottom margin of an element
iv. Margin-left: To specify the left margin of an element


4. Cascading means the hierarchical order in which different style sheet types are arranged so that the latest style sheet takes the precedence on the earlier ones. For example, if there are three definitions of <P> element in an HTML document, the first definition specifying the <P> properties precedes the second definition, which defines any other value for <P>, and this, in turn, precedes the third definition, which specifies the next value for <P>. The definition at the bottom will take precedence, and the paragraph will appear with the properties defined in the third


5. Differentiate between External style sheets and Internal style sheets?
Internal styles are useful if you want to apply similar formatting for all the tags of the same type on a web page. To create an embedded or internal style sheet, we make use of <STYLE> tag in the Head section. As there are several style sheet technologies, so we must use, Type=”text/css” attribute with the <STYLE> tag to let the browsers know that we are using CSS as the document’s style sheet language. External Style Sheet is the most powerful and flexible method to define the layout for the web pages. When you need to apply a style sheet to multiple pages, it is often recommended to create an external style sheet and link it to various web pages. An external style sheet method incorporates two files: one file contains the style code only, and the other file contains the HTML code. The file which contains the style code is saved with the extension “.css”. The HTML file is linked with this CSS file using either the Link element or Import statement.


6. Scripting makes a web page dynamic. It provides a way to interpret the user’s actions and accordingly brings changes to a web page. For example, scripts can interpret the mouse actions (such as clicking or entering a value in a textbox) and respond to that action by using a set of predefined instructions (such as opening a page).


7. Font weight property specifies the weight or boldness of the font. Possible values for this property are 100-900, bold, bolder, lighter, and normal. The numeric values 100-900 specify font weights where each value is a little darker than its predecessor. The value 400 is taken as Normal font weight, whereas 700 is Bold font weight.
Syntax: Font-weight: value;
where value= Lighter|Normal|Bold|Bolder|100|200|300|400|500|600|700|800|900
Font-Variant property sets the text font in two variants: normal or small-caps. In small-caps, all the lowercase characters are converted into uppercase characters. However, they appear slightly smaller than the original uppercase characters when displayed in the output.
Syntax: Font-variant: value;
where value= small-caps | normal


8. We can also specify the margin for all the sides of an element in one single declaration by using the Margin shorthand property.
Syntax: Margin: top-value right-value bottom-value left-value
where value=length | percentage | auto


9. We can specify the padding areas for all the four sides as shown in the example below:
P {Padding-top:40%; Padding-bottom:100px; Padding-right:50px; Padding-left:50px;}


10. Identify the errors in the codes below and write the correct code:
i. import url (style_imp.css) – @ import url (style_imp.css)
ii. <STYLE> p{color:808080} </STYLE> – No Error
iii. <p style= “text:align: justify”> – <p style=”text-align: justify;”>
iv. P {font: arial 15px sans-serif;} – P {font: arial 15px, sans-serif;}
v. {p-color:red;} – P{color:red;}



1. Harsh can control the repetition of an image by using the background-repeat property by specifying one of the four given values.
Syntax: background-repeat: value;
where value= no-repeat | repeat-x | repeat-y | repeat
No-repeat – The image will be displayed only once.
Repeat-x – The image will be repeated horizontally in the form of tiles.
Repeat-y – The image will be repeated vertically in the form of tiles.
Repeat – Default value, the image is repeated in both the directions.

2. Ruby should make the changes in the code as given below:
<body style= “background-image: url (C:/Desktop/image-3.jpg); background-repeat: no-repeat;
background-position: 100% 100%; background-color: #cccccc”; >

3. Namrata should keep the style sheet code in comments. To comment out the style sheet, she should put “/*”
characters before the style code and “*/” characters at the end of the style code.

Diya can use the universal selector in the head section of the HTML code as given below:
<STYLE Type = “text/css”>
Font-size: 3;



1. Failure to practice ethical code of conduct constitutes fraud. Fraud means purposefully representing facts to deceive another person for personal gains. The said gain may be in the form of money, goods, or information.
Reasons for Increase in Online Frauds are:

Ambiguity: Since the transaction does not happen face-to-face, the identity of the parties is easily concealed and is hard to verify.
Hacking: It is relatively easy for hackers to steal information and fraudsters to buy that information in the online black market.

2. Three netiquettes to be followed when online are:
i. When communicating online, always begin your message with a salutation and end it with your name or signature.
ii. Give a descriptive phrase in the subject line of the message header that conveys the purpose of the message.
iii. Be precise and catchy while drafting a message so that people can quickly read it.

3. Plagiarising means using or imitating the language and thoughts of some other person and projecting that representation as to your original work.
Three methods to prevent plagiarism are:
i. One must specify the source, which informs the reader about the basis of one’s ideas and the extent of one’s research.
ii. To avoid plagiarism, one should refer to several sources, understand the concept, and then pen down one’sunderstanding of the topic.
iii. Use quotation marks around all the quoted words to avoid plagiarism.

4. When someone else uses your online identity to create fraudulent messages or commit crimes, it is known as Identity theft. In other words, Identity theft is any kind of deception, scam, or crime that results in the loss of personal data such as, usernames, passwords, banking information, credit card numbers, Aadhar ID or Unique Identity Number (UID), which is then used without your permission to commit fraud and other crimes.

5. The software whose terms of distribution allow users to study, change, and distribute it is called free software. This type of software is also permitted to be used for any purpose. Redistribution of its versions must also be distributed with the original terms of free use, modification, and distribution (known as copyleft). The free software are free in the sense of freedom, and not “zero price”.
On the other hand, Open Source software refers to computer software whose source code is available to the public, and may be modified, improvised, or debugged. The original developers of the software may or may not charge a nominal fee for support and further development of the software.

6. Open source is a philosophy that promotes the free access and distribution of an end product, usually software or a program. It may extend to the implementation and design of other products.The OSI (Open Source Initiative) organisation outlines the following criteria for a program to qualify for an Open
Source Software:
i. Free Redistribution: There shall be no restriction on the sale or distribution of the software, partial or whole, and such a sale shall be free of any royalty charges or any other fee.
ii. Source Code: The distributed program must include the source code as well as its compiled form. In cases where it is not included, the source code must be easily accessible from public sources on the Internet.
iii. Derived Works: The licence must allow modifications and derived works. It must allow them to be distributed under the same terms as the licence of the original software.
iv. Integrity of the Author’s Source Code: The integrity of the author’s source code must be maintained. The licence may require derived works to carry a different name or version number from the original software.

7. Digital Property Rights refer to intellectual property rights given to persons over the digital property created by them. They usually give the creator an exclusive right over the use of his/her creation for a specific period.

8. The three ways to bridge the digital divide are:
i. The government should conduct awareness camps and classes for the elderly to address their hesitation of using information technology.
ii. All the government institutes must be encouraged to propose various computer courses at nominal fees.
iii. An individual can help someone in learning computers by assisting and conducting classes for them at regular intervals.

9. Proprietary software, also known as “closed-source software”, is copyrighted software. This software may not be freely used, modified, distributed, and is restricted by conditions predefined by its publisher, vendor, or developer.
Some features of Proprietary Software are:
i. It is primarily commercial software.
ii. It does not provide its source code.
iii. It can be purchased or licenced for a fee.

10. Copyleft licences offer users the right to run, study, share, modify, and distribute copies and modified versions of the
software with the condition that the same rights be preserved for its derivatives. Copyleft licences require that the
source code must be made available to the recipients. The source code files usually contain a copy of the licence
terms and acknowledge the authors.

1. Asmita should do the following:
i. She can help someone in learning computers by assisting and conducting classes for them at regular intervals.
ii. She can also give her old computer to a person who cannot buy a computer for himself.

2. The steps to prevent Abhay from becoming a victim of E-commerce fraud are:
i. Always use secured Internet connection and not a public Wi-Fi while purchasing something.
ii. Keep your antivirus software up-to-date to protect yourself from spyware, adware, and malware.
iii. Check that the lock icon is present in the address bar, and the URL has an ‘https’, before entering payment details into any website.

Ratna Sagar books Solution Class 10 Computer Applications 165

Answers of Ratna Sagar Book

Chapter 1: Introduction to the Internet Solutions
Chapter 2: Internet and Web Services Loding...
Chapter 3: Information Representation Method—HTML-I

Chapter 4: Information Representation Method—HTML-II
Chapter 5: Societal Impacts of IT
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