CHAPTER-5: WORKING WITH AN OPERATING SYSTEM
SECTION 4: THEORY QUESTIONS (UNSOLVED)
1. Microsoft Windows is a series of Graphical User Interface (GUI) operating systems, which was developed, marketed, and sold by Microsoft. Windows OS was the first graphical user interface for IBM-compatible PCs. Some versions of Windows are: windows XP, windows 7, windows 8.
2. Taskbar is a long horizontal bar at the bottom of the desktop. It has the Start button on the extreme left side. The middle section of the bar shows buttons with a label for each of the opened applications and allows us to quickly switch between them. You can activate the application window by clicking on its taskbar button. When an application is active, its button is highlighted in a lighter shade.
3. Following are the new features of Windows 7 operating system:
a. Pinning On Taskbar – The taskbar of Windows 7 is more flexible and application oriented. You can pin your favourite programs on the taskbar for easy access. Just right-click the program and select Pin to Taskbar option.
b. Aero Peek – This feature allows you to quickly view the desktop without minimizing the open windows. To do so, just point to the Show Desktop button at the right edge of the taskbar.
4. A shortcut is an icon containing a direct route to a specific object that provides an easy and quick way to open the frequently used file or program. It is indicated with a small jump arrow in the lower left corner. Double click on this icon will activate the related application document or folder, etc. To create shortcut of a file or program, do the following:
a. Right-click on the file or program icon.
b. Choose Send to from the drop-down menu.
c. Select Desktop (create shortcut) option from the sub-menu.
d. Observe the shortcut icon of the selected file or program on the desktop.
5. Application window: When you open any application such as Word, Excel, PowerPoint etc., you will find two windows on the screen. The large window is called the Application window. This window helps the user to communicate with the application program.
Document window: The smaller window which is inside the application window is called the
Document window. This window is used for typing, editing, and formatting the text.
6. Yes, we can change the name of an existing file/ folder by using the Rename option. Rename means to change the existing name of a file/folder.
a. To rename any file/folder, first select it. b. Right-click on the selected file/folder.
c. Select the Rename option from the drop-down menu.
d. Now type the new name that you wish to give to the file/folder, and press Enter.
SECTION 5: APPLICATION BASED QUESTIONS (UNSOLVED)
1. Click on the Start button. Type the complete or part of the file name of the project in the Search box located at the bottom of the left pane. As you type, the items that match your text will appear. Double click on the desired file to open.
2. To rename the file, Rohan should first select the file ‘My project’ which he wants to rename.
Then right-click on it and select the Rename option from the drop-down menu. Now type the new name New_Project and press Enter.
3. Click on the Start button> All Programs> Accessories and then click on Windows Explorer. Select
D: from the Navigation Pane. Details of D: will be displayed in the Details Pane.
CHAPTER-6: COMPUTER NETWORKING BRAIN DEVELOPER
SECTION 4: APPLICATION BASED QUESTIONS (UNSOLVED)
1. Bluetooth, Infrared technology
2. Personal Area Network (PAN)
3. Metropolitan Area Network (MAN)
4. Wide Area Network (WAN)
5. Radio wave
6. Wide Area Network (WAN)
SECTION 5: SHORT ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS (UNSOLVED)
1. Intranet refers to a computer network within an organization. Whereas, Extranet refers to a computer network that allows controlled access from the outside for specific business or educational purposes.
2. Full forms are as follows:
a. NIC – Network Interface Card b. ISP – Internet Service Provider c. LAN – Local Area Network
d. MAN – Metropolitan Area Network e. WAN – Wide Area Network
f. PAN – Personal Area Network
3. The File Transfer Protocol (FTP) was originally designed by Abhay Bhushan and published in 1971.
4. WiMax stands for Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access. It is a telecommunication
protocol that provides fixed and mobile internet services. WiMax requires a tower called WiMax
5. Examples are as follows:
a. Modem – Internal and External
b. Transmission – Wired and Wireless
c. [Typing error in the question, it should be only ‘Cable’] Cable – Coaxial and Fibre
d. Wireless Networking Technology – Microwave and Radio wave
6. The maximum data transmission range of Bluetooth technology is 10 meters to 240 meters.
7. Radio wave is a wireless transmission medium that distributes radio signals through the air.
8. Network components are: Server, Client, and Network Interface Card (NIC).
9. Three types of cables used in wired networking technology are: Ethernet cable, Coaxial cable, and Fibre optics cable.
10. Coaxial cable is mainly used by the cable television industry to connect TVs to a cable TV service.
The name “coaxial” refers to the common axis of the two conductors. A coaxial cable consists of central copper wire surrounded by insulation and then a shield of braided wire.
SECTION 6: LONG ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS (UNSOLVED)
1. Local Area Network (LAN) is used when two or more computers or peripheral devices are connected within a small area, like a room, office building, or a campus. The maximum range of LAN can be 10 Kilometers. The number of computers in a LAN varies from 2 to 1000. Metropolitan Area Network (MAN) is much larger than a LAN setup and is spread across a city. The most common example of a MAN type network in our daily life is Cable Television Network. The main purpose of a MAN is also to share hardware and software resources. The maximum range of MAN can be 50 Km.
Wide Area Network comes into the picture when we have two or more computers located at faraway places, linked by communication facilities, like telecommunication or satellite signals. The most common example of a WAN network in our daily life is the Internet. It requires a public telecommunication media to transfer data.
2. There are four basic types of computer networks:
a) LAN – Local Area Network is used when two or more computers or peripheral devices are connected within a small area, like a room, office building, or a campus.
b) MAN – Metropolitan Area Network is much larger than a LAN setup and is spread across a city.
c) WAN – Metropolitan Area Network is much larger than a LAN setup and is spread across a city.
a) PAN – This type of computer network is mainly created for an individual person. It consists of a desktop/laptop computer, a mobile phone, and/or a hand held computing device, such as a PDA or a Smartphone.
3. Modems are of two types: Internal modem and External modem. Internal modem comes as a separate part that is installed on the PCI (Peripheral Component Interconnect) slots available on the motherboard, and external modem is connected externally to a computer.
4. Computer network brings more efficiency, economy, and effectiveness in an organization. The key advantages of networking are:
a. Hardware Sharing: In a network, we can share almost every peripheral device, such as a printer, scanner, modem, CD writer, etc., among several computers. All these devices are attached to a remote server, which is shared among multiple computers. This reduces the cost of hardware.
b. Software Sharing: Every application software can be installed on the main server rather than installing it on every computer individually. Computers in a network can use the required software from the server. This technique saves cost as well as time.
c. Efficiency of Hardware and Software Resources: In a network, modifications in software or hardware are done at a single point. Since the resources are installed at a single point, all modifications are done at that point rather than in individual computers.
d. Reduces Redundancy: Since people use the same data in a common workplace, they can share it over a network by saving and storing it centrally. This also reduces the redundancy of the same data.
5. The Internet is a worldwide network of computer networks. It is a global system that can be used for sharing information, providing worldwide services and communication. The main five uses of the internet are:
a. Electronic Mail (email) – Email is used for sharing information, data files, Photos, Videos, Business communications, and any other files instantaneously with others.
b. FTP File Transfer – FTP is the file transfer protocol that enables data exchange over internet media in a secure way.
c. Search Engines – Google, Yahoo, and MSN are the renowned search engines in use
today. These engines locate the information one seeks across the internet.
d. E-commerce – The Internet enables the selling of goods and services in online mode.
There are many e-commerce platform vendors like Amazon, Flipkart, etc. who aggregate several products/services available in the market and sell them through their portal to customers.
e. Online education – The Internet offers a wealth of educational material on any subject
with structured navigation and search facilities. One can seek any reading material and the internet will get it from any part of the world. People need not have to go to libraries to go through books. Those who cannot attend physical (face to face) class can take an online course where they get connected to the teacher, in the other part of the world.
6. Ethernet cable resembles a phone cable but is larger than the phone cable and has eight wires.
The advantage of these cables is that they have less power consumption but the drawback with these cables is that the computer requires an Ethernet adapter card on the motherboard to connect the Ethernet cable. These cables also have their limitations, both in the distance that they can stretch and their durability. Whereas, A Fibre optic cable consists of a central glass core containing a bundle of glass threads, surrounded by several layers of protective materials. The glass threads are capable of transmitting data converted into light signals at extremely high speed. A Fibre optic cable is highly resistant to signal interference and provides better data transmission by providing high bandwidth. However, it is fragile and the maintenance cost is high.
7. A server is a powerful computer with high speed and great processing capability. There can be
multiple servers in a computer network. Servers can link other computers or electronic devices together to provide important services to both private and public users. Whereas, a client is a computer system which uses a network to access a remote service from the server. It can access all the applications or information from the main server. A client is also known as a node.
8. The advantages of infrared wireless technology are:
It is much faster and reliable than its counterparts. The devices used for the implementation of Infrared wireless technology are cheaper. They consume much less power and are much more compact. It covers a much “wider range” of area seamlessly.
The disadvantages of infrared wireless technology are:
The devices have to be in stable position during the transmission and this technology can currently only be used for “short distance communications.
9. Wi-Fi stands for Wireless Fidelity. It creates a Wireless Local Area Network that uses radio waves
to send the information. A secure, reliable, and fast wireless connection is established between the electronic devices and the Internet by using this technology. The devices require a wireless adapter connected to them to capture the Wi-Fi signals.
Wi-Fi offers the following advantages:
• Wi-Fi has replaced the wired medium completely and can be used to connect to the Internet anywhere, at any time.
• It is relatively inexpensive and can also be accessed at places where cables cannot be installed.
• One can connect multiple devices through Wi-Fi. However, there are some limitations too.
• It has high power consumption.
• It is slower than the wired medium.
• The transmission breaks or slows down when there is noise interference.
10. Data is/are :
• Facts and statistics used for reference or analysis.
• Numbers, characters, symbols, images, etc., which can be processed by a computer.
• A representation of information.
• Interpreted by a human or a machine, to derive its meaning.
For example, Marks such as 67, 88, 90, and 77 are considered as data.
• Knowledge derived from study, experience (by the senses), or instructions.
• Communication of intelligence.
• The interpretation of facts, concepts, etc., in some context that is exchangeable amongst people.
• The meaningful output, which we get after processing the data.
For example, if we relate the marks with a boy whose name is Rohit, a student of class IX, who has scored 67 in English, 88 in Math, 90 in Physics, and 77 in Chemistry, then it becomes information.
11. A computer network is a group of computers and peripheral devices, connected through a data
communication system. A computer network facilitates the sharing of hardware and software resources among different users working on different computers. These shared resources can be data files, any application software or hardware devices like printers, modems, etc.
12. Cloud is something that is present at a remote location. Cloud is defined as a set of hardware, networks, storage, interfaces, and services, combined together to deliver different aspects of computing as a service over a network or the Internet. There are four different types of cloud based on their ownership, size, and access. These are: Public cloud, Private cloud, Hybrid cloud, and Community cloud.
13. Long distance communication medium are:
a. Satellite – Satellite plays a significant role in modern day communication. It creates a communication channel between a source transmitter and a receiver at different locations on the Earth. Communication Satellites use different signals like microwave, digital, and analog signals.
b. WiMax – WiMax stands for Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access. It is a telecommunication protocol that provides fixed and obile internet services. WiMax requires a tower called WiMax Base Station, which is connected to the Internet using a standard wired high-speed connection.
c. Microwave – Microwave is a wireless communication technology that uses high frequency beams of radio waves to provide high speed signal transmission that can send and receive voice, video, and data information.
d. Radio wave is a wireless transmission medium that distributes radio signals through the air. Radio waves are widely used as signals on radio communication.
14. Advantages of cloud computing are:
• Cost savings – With cloud computing based on pay-per-use model, businesses or consumers can significantly lower the company’s IT expenses and requirements. It also provides access to numerous storage facilities and applications, which in turn save the consumer from spending a lot of money on the server, setup, and installation cost.
• Reliability – Cloud computing is much more reliable, when it comes to data management, backup, and recovery from failures. It Provides you with redundant it resources, automatic data backup, as well as quick fail over mechanism.
• Unlimited free storage – Cloud provides unlimited free and secure storage space to store large amounts of information. Users can also choose amongst the public, private, or hybrid cloud, depending on their security needs.
• Accessibility – Cloud allows easy access to cloud-based services and applications through internet-enabled devices such as desktops, Laptops, tablets, or mobile phones.
Disadvantages of cloud computing are:
• Technical issues – Cloud may provide accessibility to services and applications anytime and from anywhere, but there are times when this System encounters serious technical problems, which may lead to the entire business processes being temporarily suspended.
• Security – Although cloud service providers implement the best security standards and encryption methods, but storing the Company’s sensitive data and important files on third- party cloud providers, always opens up security risks.
• Vendor lock-in – Although cloud service providers assure that the cloud will be flexible to use and integrate but switching from one cloud Service to another is not so simple. It may lead to portability and support issues. It is the same as switching from one mobile service provider to another or like switching from android to iOS in mobile phones.
• Limited control – Since the cloud infrastructure is entirely owned, managed and monitored by the service provider, the consumer has very Little control over the applications, data, and services.